Marine Conservation Beyond MPAs: The Recognition of Other Effective Area-based Conservation Measures (OECMs) in Indonesia
In a marine environment that is rapidly changing due to anthropogenic activities and climate change, area-based management tools are often used to mitigate threats and conserve biodiversity. Marine protected areas (MPAs) are amongst the most widespread and recognized marine conservation tools worldwide, however, MPAs alone are inadequate to address the environmental crisis. The promotion of other effective area-based conservation measures (OECMs) under draft Target 3 of the Post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework, i.e., conserving 30% of marine areas by 2030, holds promise to acknowledge sites and practices occurring beyond MPAs that contribute to conservation. Here, we evaluate the potential recognition of OECMs into Indonesia’s national policy framework on marine resource management and provide the first-ever overview of distribution and types of potential marine OECMs in Indonesia, including a review of the existing evidence on conservation effectiveness. We identified >380 potential marine OECMs, led by government, customary and local communities, or the private sector, towards diverse management objectives, including habitat protection, traditional/customary management, fisheries, tourism, or other purposes. While some evidence exists regarding the conservation effectiveness of these practices, the long-term impacts on biodiversity of all potential marine OECMs in Indonesia are unknown. Many OECM elements have been included in several national policies, yet there are no established mechanisms to identify, recognize and report sites as OECMs in Indonesia. We propose four transformational strategies for future OECM recognition in Indonesia, namely: (i) safeguard customary and traditional communities, (ii) leverage cross-sector and cross-scale collaboration, (iii) focus on delivering outcomes, and (iv) streamline legal frameworks. Our study shows that OECMs have the potential to play a significant role in underpinning marine area-based conservation in Indonesia, including supporting the Government of Indonesia in reaching national and international conservation targets and goals.
The role of social networks for transformations in environmental governance: a scoping review
Social Science Department – Social-ecological systems analysis, ZMT
Our world is changing rapidly. To cope with uncertainties and the tension between increasing use pressure and growing need to protect the environment, the way we govern nature also needs to transform. Research has shown that social network analysis (SNA) provides important insights for better understanding and addressing the challenges of environmental governance. However, the application of SNA to transformation studies is still in its infancy and a systematic scoping review of the literature combining environmental governance, transformation and social network analysis has not yet been undertaken. This scoping review takes stock of and analyses research on the role of social networks for transformative change in environmental governance to determine (1) the extent to which social networks have been researched in this area, (2) how scholars define and link the terms ‘environmental governance’, ‘transformations’ and ‘social networks’, (3) what methods and best practices are employed, (4) what the main characteristics of desirable changes in environmental governance are, as well as how (which) social networks can potentially facilitate them, and (5) what kind of evidence on the role of social networks for transformative changes in environmental governance is most useful for practitioners. This study in-process will constitute the concept paper of an ongoing PhD research exploring the role of social networks for change in the Brazilian coastal- marine environmental governance. I will relate the results of three Brazilian case studies and a further systematic literature review already conducted as part of the doctoral research to the findings of this scoping review paper
Revisiting the Right-sizing of Fishing Effort: Process, Outcomes and Application in other Consensus-based Fisheries Management
Regina Therese Bacalso1,2, Nygiel Armada2, Andrea Barcelona2, Vivien Facunla2,3, Matthias Wolff1, Giovanni Romagnoni1, Marie Fujitani1
1) ZMT; 2) Fish Right Program – Philippines; 3) Path Foundation Philippines, Inc.
The right-sizing of fishing effort[i] is proposed as a tool to apply the ecosystems approach in fisheries management (EAFM) to directly address unregulated fishing, which is one major threat to sustainable capture fisheries systems. The aim is to determine via a participatory process a configuration of fishing effort that can be sustainably supported by the ecosystem, and at the same time, provide adequate fish catches to support the livelihood needs of fishers in a defined marine key biodiversity area (MKBA). With the aid of an ecosystem modeling tool (Ecopath with Ecosim), right-sizing was pilot-tested in 8 MKBAs in the Philippines, wherein improving equity in the access of fisheries resource benefits emerged as a principal priority objective. Improving the ecosystem structure as evidenced by large, predatory fishes and minimizing fisher displacement likewise outweighed maximizing catch and incomes as overriding priorities in the decision-making. We are now in the process of applying a similar consensus-based approach to evaluate alternative scenarios of existing fisheries policies, including the seasonal fisheries closure of small pelagics that is intended to sustain the small pelagic stocks in the Visayan Sea, Philippines. Hereby, we describe the ongoing participation of project partners and multiple stakeholders in defining the research questions, identifying and filling-in of information gaps, shaping the ecosystem models, and ultimately the negotiation and future decision-making towards the sustainable exploitation of fisheries resources. [i] Armada, N.B., Bacalso, R.T.M., Rosales, R.M.P., Lazarte, A.T., 2018. Right-sizing as a strategy for allocating fishing effort in a defined marine ecosystem: A Philippines case study. Ocean & Coastal Management 165, 167-184.