Abstracts session 9

Open session


Abstract 64

Virtual Academy for Marine & Coastal Sustainability – connecting partners around the globe for a joint initiative?

Janine Reinhard

ZMT Academy

The currently ongoing “digital turn” can create great opportunities for a global education of early career scientists as important multipliers and future decision makers. In the presentation I would like to develop ideas and visions on How can we as ZMT together with our partners establish transnational capacity development using digital tools? The basic idea is to build a virtual academy together with partner institutes from tropical countries. Each institute brings its expertise, lectures and a target group. The curriculum and course offerings are designed together in a board and early career scientists from all institutes can join. With digital instruments a curriculum is established that leads to skill development and networking. Yearly “live” sessions could be added to foster the socializing part of the program. This model would go beyond the classical graduate school that connects people working at a specific university but connect people around the globe bound to various institutions but somehow dealing the very similar research questions. With this presentation I would like to present the vision, get feedback and ideas from the ZMT community and find collaborators who would be willing to engage in such a virtual academy in case we can gain funding.

Abstract 70

Taming ZMT’s data zoo

Joscha Schmiedt, Birte Pfeiffer, Alexandra Nozik, Miroslav Shaltev, Arjun Chennu


Science at ZMT is diverse and heterogeneous covering many different scientific domains such as ecology, social sciences, geology, biogeochemistry and modelling. While this can create a fruitful and inspiring environment for tropical research, it presents a challenge for research data management (RDM), as one of the key pillars of RDM is standardization. How do you standardize diverse data? In this talk we’ll present how the recently established Scientific Data Services Group (est. 2021) aims to tackle this problem. The group provides technological products and human services in order to make ZMT’s data FAIR (findable, accessible, interoperable and re-usable). We’ll give insights into how the two products that we developed in 2021 can help ZMT’s scientists to make better data: (1) the DataLab for collaborative data analysis: https://www.zmt-datalab.de (2) the DataCloud for curated and shared data storage: https://datacloud.leibniz-zmt.de

Abstract 73

The reef passages of New Caledonia and their social-ecological role as connectors between coastal and offshore spaces and species

Annette Breckwoldt


The importance of coral reefs for Small Island States in the tropics has long been undisputed. Healthy and protected reefs help island systems (cultural, ecological, social, physical…) thrive and survive. Reef passages link the open ocean to lagoon and coastal areas in coral reef ecosystems, and are generally home to an exceptionally diverse and abundant marine life, hosting emblematic species and fish spawning aggregations particularly vulnerable to fishing. The social and ecological roles of reef passages provide multiple benefits for the islands and their peoples, but are so far poorly characterized. We intend to highlight the multi-faceted importance of these special openings in fringing reefs that connect inshore and offshore areas even at very low tides. Every day, there is transfer of a variety of living and non-living objects through these openings. This can be sediments from an island’s hinterland, returning fish in spawning mode (or on regular migration), emblematic megafauna such as turtles and sharks (juvenile/adult), fishers, souls of the deceased people or even sounds that are produced or passing through the passage. Reef passages are ‘connectivity zones’ between inshore coastal and open waters and showcase a number of ‘boundary’ issues that need to be better understood, e.g. for conservation planning, supporting fisheries and/or protecting marine biodiversity and culture.

Abstract 82

Role of coastal CO2 sequestration in the Benguela Upwelling System from a global biological carbon pump perspective.

Claire Siddiqui1, Tim Rixen1, Niko Lahajnar2, Anja K. Van der Plas3, Deon C. Louw3, Tarron Lamont4, Keshnee Pillay4

1) Leibniz Centre for Tropical Marine Research, Bremen, Germany; Institute of Geology, Universität Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany; 3) National Marine Information and Research Centre, Namibia; 4) Oceans & Coasts Research Branch, Department of Environment, Forestry and Fisheries, South Africa;

Eastern Boundary Upwelling Systems are well-known for their high productivity and fishery yields. However, being scarcely sampled and poorly represented in global models, their role for the biological carbon pump as CO2 sources and sinks remains elusive. Here, we present a compilation of shipboard measurements over the past two decades, showing how the Benguela Upwelling System (BUS) in the southeast Atlantic Ocean acts as a CO2 source in the north and CO2 sink in the south. Surface warming of upwelled waters increases the partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) and outgassing in both regions, but in the south, the biologically-mediated drawdown of CO2 exceeds this warming effect. Here, the biological carbon pump owes its stronger impact on pCO2 to higher shares of preformed nutrients supplied from the Southern Ocean. Although the formation of preformed nutrients increases pCO2 in surface waters and counteracts human-induced invasion of CO2 in the Southern Ocean, their utilization in the BUS compensates for almost 20% of the CO2 loss occurring in the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean. This emphasizes the BUS’s role as key to improve our understanding of the ocean’s response to climate change and the future evolution of CO2 in the atmosphere.

Abstract 87

Connecting Field and Office – Data Collection with the KoboToolbox

Alexandra Nozik, Nancy Oduor, Nils Moosdorf


Fieldwork is an essential part of research work at ZMT. Data collection can take some weeks to some months, depending on the project and its location(s). In most cases, valuable information about your data is saved locally on the computer or even in paper format, and neither you nor your supervisor see the full collection results in an interpretable format for a long time (and hopefully you still know then what your abbreviations mean). Imagine if your supervisor on the other side of the globe could see your sampling progress or survey answers right after collection: You could get feedback directly on the patterns evolving and evaluate the course of the data collection process while you are still in the field. You could make adjustments to your surveying design and thus enhance your results. Or imagine, you have local scientists/students interested in contributing to your project, and you could leave your fieldwork location while data collection in your project would not stop, and you would get the data automatically. This is possible with the free and open source data collection service of the KoboToolbox, which the SGD group has tried out in a project in Mombasa, Kenya, in 2021. It is easy to use, gives you various options to make up your data collection design for any kind of data (social and natural sciences). At your PC, you have the overview to prepare and later to export and analyze your data. And in the field a stable app can be used online and offline for documentation. In the presentation, I will give an overview for the KoboToolbox: from designing your survey to collecting data in the field. I will present our test case and experience (PhD project of Nancy Oduor) and answer questions on potential application in your study.

Figure © Alexandra Nozik

Abstract 107

Citizen Science for coastal research: Insights from the seagrass monitoring case study in Hainan

Jialin Zhang, Tim Jennerjahn


Citizen science is rising quickly, given its potential to enhance public participation, tapping all possible sources of data and information. However, the use of citizen science in marine and coastal researches is still underrepresented. Besides the challenges of the marine environment, citizen science projects in marine and coastal contexts also face two common concerns: uneven participation and limited use of citizen science as a research tool. This talk will share the understandings of these two issues using the case study of seagrass citizen science monitoring in Hainan. More precisely, we will share factors influencing participants’ motivation and engagement in a citizen science project by analyzing quantitative data on participants’ profiles and surveys. Furthermore, we will explore the challenges of using citizen science as a research tool in coastal researches by systemically evaluating the project outcomes.


Abstract 84

Social science methods used to study coastal and marine conflicts: results from a systematic literature review (Programme Area 4)

Lol Dahlet1, Samiya Selim2, Ingrid Van Putten3, Marion Glaser1,4

1) ZMT; 2) University of Liberal Arts, Dhaka, Bangladesh; 3) CSIRO, Oceans and Atmosphere, Hobart, Australia; 4) University of Bremen

Conflicts around the use of coastal and marine resources have long existed and continue to affect livelihoods and oceans’ sustainability. Social science disciplines have long engaged in the study of marine conflict and have used a wide range of approaches and methods to do so. However, the marine conflict literature is difficult to navigate and not easily reviewed, among others because of a lack of central themes and keywords. This poses challenges when trying to understand the extant social science methods have been successfully applied in an empirical research context. Due to the lack of a coherent understanding of the social science methods used to study marine conflict, systematic research on the related emergence, dynamics, and modalities of these marine conflicts also requires attention. In the present study we draw on a review of the social science literature focusing on coastal and marine conflict and make a first step in linking the applied social science methods to the emergence, dynamics, and modalities of marine conflict. We build on the analysis of the 105 peer-reviewed articles gathered using Scopus and Web of Science databases. In so doing, we hope to contribute to the discussion on opportunities and gaps within, and across ocean’s sustainability fields when it comes to conflict and conflict management, as well as to highlight potential developments and paths for future investigations.

Abstract 114

Effects of temperature and oxygen availability on erythrocyte and leucocytes of Halobatrachus didactylus

Juan Molina1, Pedro Guerreiro2, Andreas Kunzmann1

1) ZMT; 2) Algarve Uni

Temperature and oxygen are two of the most affected environmental variables in our age of climate. The changes in these variables can have a plethora of effects on marine biota, and understanding them is of outmost importance to address this issue. We simulated climate change scenarios, to evaluate the effects of high temperature, hypoxia and a combination of both, on the blood cell proportions and shape of Halobatrachus didactylus. We used a condition index to estimate the welfare of the fish in each treatment. The two environmental drivers studied showed effects on the number of white blood cells and shape of red blood cells over the course of 30 days of exposure. The most affected parameter was the red and white blood cell count, which increased significantly in hypoxic conditions. Red blood cell counts were higher in high temperature, but oxygen levels showed no effects on this parameter, which leads us to believe hypoxia triggers an increase in white cell numbers. These changes seem to have negatively impacted the condition of the fish, as individuals on the high temperature conditions exhibited much lower condition index values.


Abstract 98

A standardized database of Last Interglacial (MIS 5e) sea-level indicators in Southeast Asia

Kathrine Maxwell1, Hildegard Westphal2, Alessio Rovere3

1) Leibniz Centre for Tropical Marine Research (ZMT), Bremen, Germany; 2) Department of Geosciences, University of Bremen, Germany; 3) Department of Geosciences, University of Bremen, Germany 3MARUM – Center for Marine Environmental Sciences, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany

Marine Isotope Stage 5e (MIS 5e; the Last Interglacial, 125 ka) represents a process analog for a warmer world. Analysis of sea-level proxies formed in this period helps in constraining both regional and global drivers of sea-level change. In Southeast Asia, several studies have reported elevation and age information on MIS 5e sea-level proxies, such as fossil coral reef terraces or tidal notches, but a standardized database of such data was hitherto missing. In this paper, we produced such a sea-level database using the framework of the World Atlas of Last Interglacial Shorelines (WALIS; https://warmcoasts.eu/world-atlas.html). Overall, we screened and reviewed 14 studies on Last Interglacial sea-level indicators in Southeast Asia, from which we report 43 proxies (42 coral reef terraces and 1 tidal notch) that were correlated to 134 dated samples. Five data points date to MIS 5a (80 ka), six data points are MIS 5c (100 ka), and the rest are dated to MIS 5e. The database compiled in this study is available at https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5040784 (Maxwell et al., 2021).